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  • Dr. Jeff Doolittle

Mergers & Acquisitions: The Importance of Creating a Shared Culture


Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) is a key growth strategy for many organizations: entering new marketplaces, acquiring new technologies, leveraging scale and size. Culture is acutely critical during times of notable change, such as M&A, which offers an opportunity for a renewed start on culture. However, when two organizations are brought together through mergers and acquisitions for economic reasons, it is doubtful the two cultures will remain precisely the same. According to research, 50% to 85% of mergers fail to deliver on shareholder returns despite the best intentions. To achieve the desired economic goals of the new organization, and avoid a clash, the two cultures must harmonize. Anyone who has endured an M&A knows how stressful it can be for everyone. Clashing of organizational culture is the most cited reason for the failures. The leadership challenge is to figure out the best way to manage the formation of a blended new shared culture. Without intervention it is most likely the culture will evolve on its own over time and the dominant culture will assimilate or reject members from the other culture. The best method to achieve the goals from the merger or acquisition is to identify the best parts of both cultures and create a new harmonized culture.


This white paper has five sections. All sections are essential to an understanding of the importance of creating a shared culture. The white paper starts with understanding culture and a summary of the role of culture in organizations. The challenges and proven steps to take to harmonize the two cultures are then discussed. The white paper ends with a discussion of the significant benefits to creating a shared culture and a conclusion.

The purpose of this white paper is to provide an understanding of why creating a shared culture when bringing two organizations together is essential. As designed, this white paper presents a clear picture of the organizational culture and ultimately a leader’s role in leading culture harmonization for the merger or acquisition.


Culture has been studied for many years resulting in many different models and definitions. Also, within organizations, if ten employees are asked to define the company culture, there may be ten different answers. The concept of culture is abstract and not well understood. Organizational culture is complicated because it involves individuals, their interactions, teams, and the organization as a whole. A working technical definition of organizational culture is an often hidden shared pattern or system of beliefs, values, and behavioral norms. A more simplified working definition of organizational culture is the way things get done within the organization when no one is watching. Culture lives in the stories that are passed on from employee to employee. An organization’s culture reflects the various lessons that an organization has learned through its history and incorporates the many behaviors and processes that have developed over time. Often many elements of an organization’s culture are not visible to its employees. It is comparable to breathing. Breathing is essential to life but controlled unconsciously. Likewise many elements of culture drop into the background, and become automatic. However, highly visible and disruptive events like mergers and acquisitions can make cultural differences striking.


Today many industries and organizations operate on a global scale. Understanding the dynamics of organizational and local cultural context is imperative for leaders in these organizations. Not understanding the impact of local culture on organizational culture can lead to grave miscalculations. Local culture is learned at the beginning stages of childhood, and reinforced by local social, spiritual, economic, and education systems. Local culture is held deeply and typically changes slowly over generations. It influences the ways employees perceive and judge the actions of the organization and leaders. Also, local culture affects employee communication both verbally and non-verbally. Organizational culture does not replace local culture. Therefore, the opportunity for leaders is in harmonizing local and organizational cultures. Leaders have to be experts with the paradox of local versus organizational culture. The diversity of employee and customer interactions are two significant issues that most global organizations face. One company in the casual dining industry that has navigated some of these issues well holds to company quality standards and values but allows local flexibility on its customer menu. For example, rice is a substitute on the menu for fries in Indonesia and roasted pork for hamburgers in Korea.


Organizational culture has an impact on everything in business and plays a role at the individual, team, and organization levels. The following is a shortlist of some of the critical roles of organizational culture by level:

Individual Level • Drive and reinforce profitable behaviors among employees. • Shape employee interactions in the workplace. A healthy culture promotes employee trust, community, positive competition, and effective leader-follower relationships. • Enhance individual commitment to the company within the workplace. • Influence the leaders’ leadership style.

Team Level • Shape the structure, performance, capability, and effectiveness of teams. A healthy culture promotes productive conflict, team member participation, and team engagement.

Organization Level

• Support the brand image with a unique identity to the market. Organizations become known by their culture. • Provide policy guidance enabling the organization to bring out the best in each employee. • Influence organizational design in support of the vision, mission, strategies, and critical priorities.


Many studies have reported that the number one reason for merger and acquisition failure is the lack of cultural integration. Even companies with strong organizational cultures may develop into dysfunctional organizational cultures after a merger without actions to harmonize the two cultures. Mergers and acquisitions create volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous environments for those trying to integrate cultures. Additionally, in recent years the push for a quick return on investments has impacted the way cultures are integrated. This push leads to an organizational priority placed on financials, and creating a shared culture takes a back seat to the financial needs. Also, as momentum builds, more people become involved, and it becomes more visible and harder to stop.

Lack of cultural due diligence is often a problem. Usually, due diligence is conducted by lawyers and experts in finance or accounting rather than experts in understanding and diagnosing culture. Because culture is resilient and implicit, it is not susceptible to change. The staying power of culture is because it feels right and natural; cultural values imposed are opposed and seldom replace existing cultural elements.

Employee communication is difficult during mergers and acquisitions. Both organizations struggle knowing whom to communicate with and when to communicate leaving employees in the dark about the merger and acquisition, which in turn amplifies the rumor mill and fear among employees being left out. Communication is a skill that becomes critical for leaders during mergers and acquisitions. Listening becomes more difficult as workloads increase. Being aware of employee's concerns and questions is crucial for knowing what to communicate.

Employee retention is a challenge during mergers and acquisitions. Negative thoughts and beliefs about the change can result in employees’ choosing to leave. Also, the uncertainty, lack of job security, questions about leadership credibility and trust, and confusion is frustrating for employees. The added complexity of the merger and acquisition the turnover creates distractions making it harder to get the work done. Also, the turnover contributes to the loss of tribal knowledge about how to get things done.

Global mergers and acquisitions can present a challenge of physical distance and time zone differences between employees. Also, language differences become cross-cultural issues in mergers and acquisitions and can create added costs for translations or misunderstandings. Additionally, variations in national culture can further complicate communication.

M&A may create a sense of fear among employees because of the anticipated changes and known high failure rate. Perhaps it is the fear of the unknown or the fear of repeating a past failure. Employees from the announcement start to wonder how this change will impact them personally such as redundancy of their position, changes in reporting structure, changes in responsibilities and their capabilities to meet the changes, and many more factors.


The purpose of this section is not to provide expectations of a panacea that will guarantee success but to provide practical and proven steps and tools a leader can take to face the challenges of cultural issues in mergers and acquisitions. The key is to engage in efforts of creating a shared culture early into the merger and acquisition process, rather than waiting for a culture clash to occur.

Changing culture requires a whole lot more than creating and communicating a new company catchphrase, vision, and mission statement. Successful mergers and acquisitions require more than the integration of policies, organization charts, and systems that often get the most attention. Strategies need to include CEO sponsorship, reinforcement, and communication, as much as, the specific action plans. Proactive and transparent communication can help build trust. A frequently asked question (FAQ) document to communicate answers to questions employees might have in advance of them being asked can help reduce fears and rumors. Creating a shared culture requires lots of involvement, input, ideas, teamwork, and commitment to take place.

Culture During Mergers and Acquisitions

The merger and acquisition process has three phases. First, in the pre-combination phase, the organization identifies a growth strategy, and potential targets are selected, due diligence begins, the executives negotiate the deal, and then it is legally approved by shareholders and regulators. Second, in the combination phase, action plans start to combine both companies. Third, in the post-combination phase, the shared culture begins to take form and settle in.

Creating a shared culture in mergers and acquisitions begins with the pre-combination phase to review potential targets and conducting due diligence. Once the company has selected a target for merger or acquisition, then the targets’ culture should be discussed. Be discrete during the due diligence to allow for analysis. If not already defined it is a good practice to assess the current state of culture identify the company’s strengths and weaknesses. Potential targets should be reviewed for known elements of the target’s external culture. Consider the target’s ability to adapt by evaluating their perceived customer focus, change resilience, mission, and vision. Also, it is vital to establish cultural goals along with economic growth goals.

In the due diligence stage, it is critical to create the desired end state for the culture. It is a target, not an absolute. Through the M&A, there may be issues or opportunities, and the goal is to adapt as they arise. While there are many ways to define the end state (see Defining the End State figure below) ranging from using one culture or another or transforming a new culture, perhaps the best option is to utilize the best of both companies achieving synergy through harmonization. Blending the best of both cultures is often the most successful.

Anticipate that most people will initially respond to the merger or acquisition with concern initially. It is a good practice during the pre-combination phase of the merger or acquisition to be confidential with a small team to allow for as much work to be done before both organizations find out. More work done in advance allows for a quicker response and minimizes the employee turnover risk. Expect that the process of working toward a shared culture is going to take time. Plan on the creation of shared culture to take at least a year. Establishing a new culture is like pouring cement; it takes time for it to cure completely. Even after the initial work is done do not let up. Don’t walk away.

Define the End State

Marks, M. L., & Mirvis, P. H. (2011). A framework for the role of the human resource in managing culture in mergers and acquisitions. Human Resource Management, 50(6), 859-877. doi:10.1002/hrm.20445

During the combination phase of the merger or acquisition, it is essential to conduct a current state culture assessment of the newly merged or acquired company. Do not accept comments that the two companies are exactly alike. The assessment will surface strengths and weaknesses as well as identify any possible sub-cultures or areas of opportunity. Taking the time to assess both cultures allows for a better definition of the culture and behaviors necessary for teamwork and optimal performance. Engage in a discussion to create a shared understanding of the evaluation results and to discuss the implications of the current culture. This discussion helps clarify an approach for creating a shared culture. Next is choosing what to harmonize and gaining agreement on keeping the best of both and focusing the efforts on areas with the most significant business impact. Lastly is creating action plans that will move the shared culture forward by prioritizing and developing specific action plans. It is essential to anticipate and plan for likely reactions from both companies’ employees.

What leaders reinforce, either from positive reward and recognition or from negative threats and punishment will get done. Leaders at all levels play a vital role in the success of the M&A. When creating action plans utilize the following primary and secondary actions and tools for leaders to embed the new culture :

Primary Actions and Tools

  • Pay attention to metrics that matter and provide regular updates

  • Respond to organizational crises

  • Resource allocation

  • Training and development

  • Rewards and recognition

  • Selection, promotions, and terminations

  • Manage change

Secondary Actions and Tools

  • Organization design

  • Policies and procedures

  • Rituals and events

  • Workspaces

  • Traditions and stories

  • Vision and mission statements

Remember that resistance is almost guaranteed with mergers and acquisitions even when perceived as desirable. The disruption from resistance can derail or delay action plans. Make plans to respond to disruptions and quickly respond to questions, concerns or rumors that surface from employees.

During the post-combination phase of the merger or acquisition, sustaining the efforts to create a shared culture is crucial. A repeat of the culture assessment should be conducted to measure the progress of creating a shared culture. Also, the assessment results can be used to create new action plans to support and shift to the new shared culture and connect culture back to the economic goals of the merger or acquisition.